Email Fraud: The Greatest Fraud in the World

Rui Serra By Rui Serra • June 26, 2023

Learn about the dark side of email and how to defend against it. Discover common tactics like phishing and BEC scams, and understand the staggering consequences of falling victim to fraud. 

Undoubtedly, email has become an indispensable tool for communication. However, with its widespread use comes a dark side: email fraud. Regarded by many as the greatest fraud in the world, email fraud encompasses a range of deceptive practices aimed at deceiving individuals and organizations for financial gain. 


According to ZDnet, 3 billion phishing emails are sent out each day. And extortion of over 33 million records with a ransomware or phishing attack every 11 seconds is expected to occur by 2023. And according to the FBI's Internet Crime Complaint Center (IC3), email fraud, including phishing and BEC scams, resulted in reported losses of over $4.2 billion in 2020 alone. In 2022, The FBI’s Internet Crime Complaint Center received a total of 800,944 reported complaints, with losses exceeding $10.3 billion. According to their 2022 Internet Crime Complaint Center report, phishing schemes were the number one crime type with 300,497 complaints.


Email fraud refers to the malicious use of email to deceive and defraud individuals or organizations. It involves the transmission of fraudulent messages that appear legitimate, aiming to trick recipients into disclosing sensitive information, making financial transactions, or taking actions that benefit the fraudsters. These fraudulent emails often imitate reputable organizations, government agencies, or trusted individuals to establish credibility and gain the recipient's trust. Here’s why email fraud is the greatest form of fraud in the world: 

  • Ubiquity: Almost everyone who is online uses email, making it a common vector for fraud attempts.
  • Scalability: Email fraud is easy to scale. Fraudsters can send out millions of fraudulent emails with little effort or cost, hoping that even a small percentage of recipients will fall for the scam.
  • Sophistication: Email fraud schemes have become more sophisticated, using social engineering techniques, like phishing, to trick victims into revealing sensitive information. They often impersonate trustworthy entities, making it difficult for the average user to identify fraud.
  • Global reach: Email enables fraudsters to target victims all over the world, transcending geographical boundaries that might limit other forms of fraud.
  • Direct financial impact: Email fraud can lead to significant financial loss. For example, Business Email Compromise (BEC) scams, where a fraudster impersonates a company executive or supplier to trick an employee into transferring money, have resulted in billions of dollars in losses globally.
  • Data breaches: Email fraud often serves as a gateway to data breaches, where sensitive personal or corporate data is stolen, leading to identity theft, ransomware attacks, or corporate espionage.
  • Hard to trace and prosecute: Due to the anonymous nature of the internet, and the fact that fraudsters often operate from countries with lax cybercrime laws, it can be extremely difficult to trace the perpetrators and bring them to justice.
  • Impact on all sectors: From individuals to small businesses, large corporations, and even governments, no one is immune from email fraud.


Examples of email fraud can vary, but some common tactics include:

  1. Phishing: Fraudsters send emails posing as legitimate entities, such as banks or online service providers, requesting personal information like usernames, passwords, or credit card details. These emails often contain urgent or alarming messages to create a sense of urgency and prompt recipients to act quickly.
  2. Business Email Compromise (BEC): In a BEC scam, fraudsters impersonate company executives, suppliers, or business partners to trick employees into making wire transfers or disclosing sensitive company information. These emails are often well-crafted and appear to come from trusted sources within the organization.
  3. Advance Fee Fraud: Also known as the "Nigerian Prince" scam, this fraud involves emails promising a large sum of money in exchange for a small fee or assistance. The scammers convince recipients to provide their bank account details or make upfront payments, but the promised funds never materialize.

The consequences of falling victim to email fraud can be devastating. Individuals may suffer financial loss, identity theft, or reputational damage. For organizations, the repercussions can include financial losses, compromised customer data, damage to brand reputation, and potential legal consequences.


To protect yourself from falling victim to email fraud, consider the following preventive measures:

  1. Be vigilant: Scrutinize emails carefully, checking for any signs of inconsistency, misspellings, or unusual requests. Be wary of urgent or alarming messages that pressure you to act quickly.
  2. Verify before responding: If an email requests sensitive information or financial transactions, independently verify the request by contacting the purported sender directly through a trusted contact or official website.
  3. Strengthen your security: Use strong, unique passwords for your email accounts and enable two-factor authentication (2FA) for an extra layer of security. Regularly update your devices and security software to protect against malware and phishing attempts.
  4. Educate yourself and others: Stay informed about the latest email fraud techniques and educate yourself on how to identify and report fraudulent emails. Share this knowledge with family, friends, and colleagues to create a collective defense against email fraud.


Email fraud remains a grave threat in our interconnected world. By staying vigilant, being cautious, and implementing security measures, individuals and organizations can reduce their risk of becoming victims. Remember, in the battle against email fraud, awareness and prevention are the most potent weapons we possess.


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